a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

A study of 16MnDR steel thick plate narrow gap laser-MIG ...Abstract. In order to realize the narrow-gap welding of 20 mm thick plate 16MnDR steel, experiments are designed to study the effect of root faces and groove angles on welding process stability ... 10 mins A study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plates using ......

(PDF) Compari of continuous and pulsed wave lasers in a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

PDF A continuous wave (CW) and a nanosecond pulsed wave (PW) lasers were used to join 1-mm thick sheets of SS304L (SS) austenitic stainless-steel to a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Find, read and cite all the research you a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser (PDF) Compari of continuous and pulsed wave lasers in a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserPDF A continuous wave (CW) and a nanosecond pulsed wave (PW) lasers were used to join 1-mm thick sheets of SS304L (SS) austenitic stainless-steel to a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Find, read and cite all the research you a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

(PDF) Study on Microstructural Characterization a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

The measurement was performed along the thickness of the plate (at a depth of 2 mm from the top and root of the welded joint) to study the effect of the welding passes on residual stresses. (PDF) Study on Microstructural Characterization a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserThe measurement was performed along the thickness of the plate (at a depth of 2 mm from the top and root of the welded joint) to study the effect of the welding passes on residual stresses. 20 mm thickness Nd:Yag laser welding of 316 L stainless a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserMultiples passes welding of very high thickness parts (up to 60 mm) with a Nd:Yag laser requires at first the welding of a root pass, located at the bottom of

29304 16 gtaw carbon steel pipe flashcards quizlet

A high-speed video system was used to observe the droplet a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserAdvances in Laser Cleaning of Artwork and Objects of a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserJan 28, 2010A study of thick plate ultra-narrow-gap multi-pass multi-layer laser welding technology combined with laser cleaning a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser All-metal terahertz metamaterial biosensor for protein a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserFigure 1a shows the structure of the proposed all-metal metamaterial terahertz biosensor. A hollow dumbbell pattern with a periodic arrangement along the x and y directions was formed on a 50 m thick stainless-steel plate (conductivity of 1.4 × 10 6 S/m). The period sizes P x and P y of the unit structure are 500 m and 300 m, respectively. . The hollow dumbbells length L and gap H a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Chapter 4 Fundamentals of Laser-Material Interaction Chapter 4 Fundamentals of Laser-Material Interaction and Application to Multiscale Surface Modication Matthew S. Brown and Craig B. Arnold Abstract Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy into conned regions of a material in order to achieve a desired response.

Choosing the Right Metal and Thickness for your Laser a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

When designing signage and decorative pieces, youll want to stick with lighter and thinner metals. Our best metals for hanging pieces Aluminum Our lightest material. Great for signage when you need both thick and lightweight. Brass Lightweight and pretty to look at. Stainless steel in thicknesses of .060 and less. Common problems and solutions when laser cutting medium a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserCommon problems when laser cutting medium and thick metal plates Thick carbon steel plate perforation problem. In the processing of thick plates, the problem of perforation time accounts for a large proportion. Various laser manufacturers have developed their perforation plans. The most representative is the energy perforation. Considerations for designing parts for laser cuttingTodays solid-state laser cutting technology processes thin material very quickly. For instance, an 8-kW solid-state laser cutting machine can cut 0.039-in.-thick steel at a speed in excess of 2,000 inches per minute (IPM). Even for thick plate, fabricating technology developers continue to increase the speed at which fabricators can cut.

Development of Laser Thickness Gauge in Steel Plate a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

the top edge of the steel plate being conveyed. The laser thickness gauge is susceptible to the effect of mechani-cal deformation due to temperature changes, and vibra-tion. In order to ensure the necessary performances, an on-line calibration method was proposed and applied, and a real operational plate thickness gauge was suc-cessfully a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Dynamic Beam Shaping Improves Laser Cutting of Thick With stainless steel, DBS reduces post-treatments to a minimum, while mild steel plates are dross-free and nonoxidized. Courtesy of Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS. So far it has not been possible to cut mild steel plates above 8-mm sheet thickness by a laser fusion cutting process with acceptable quality. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel2mm thick annealed EN43 mild steel sheets. Laser cutting a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser study was the indication of the possibility of producing a high quality cut using a bre laser, and that under certain a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser narrow operating window exists for striation-free laser cutting cutting.)(,

Fiber Laser Cutting Metal Techniques IPG Photonics

Laser Cutting Techniques. In Fusion Cutting, the laser beam is coaxially combined with an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon. The heat produced by the laser beam creates a molten layer that is ejected down through the kerf by pressurized gas from the nozzle. Fusion cutting may be Fiber Laser Industrial Etching Marking e-Book4 Fiber Laser Industrial Etching Marking e-Book Compatible Materials Here is a list of the compatible materials that we have found work well with the fiber laser system 17-4 PH stainless steel 303 stainless 4043 steel 6061 Aluminum ABS (black/white) Aluminum, 6061 Gap bridging of CO2 laser and hybrid CO2 laser MAG weldingAbstract Author Details Introduction Experimental Approach Experimental Results In this paper the gap bridging capability of autogenous CO2 laser, CO2 laser with cold filler wire and hybrid CO2laser-MAG welding are compared, for the butt welding of 8mm thick C-Mn steel plate. Welding conditions for each process were established at various joint gaps. For hybrid welding the effect of the laser/arc configuration, such as laser pulling or laser pushing and the separation between the two processes, on the gap bridging capability of hybrid welding were examined. The results indicate that th See more on twi-global Laser Cutting Stainless Plate and Sheet Penn StainlessMaximum plate thickness is 1.125. Penn Stainless Products utilizes a Tanaka LMRV40KW plate-laser cutting machine for all in-house stainless steel plate and sheet laser processing. The massive cutting bed can handle stainless steel sheet and plate up to 13 ft x 80 ft in size. The Tanaka LMRV40KW has two heads which rely on a traveling a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

How to bend flat glass perfectly around corners

Using the new laser-based glass-bending process, it is possible to achieve precisely defined and extremely small bend radii, so that even laminated safety glass can be bent around a corner. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserThe stress index of 2520 steel under 700°C, 725°C, 750°C are 1.459, 6.2866, 3.216, respectively. And the apparent activation energy of 2520 steel is 478.81 kJ/mol. The results of this study can provide some technical references for the safety management of 2520 steel. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserThe stress index of 2520 steel under 700°C, 725°C, 750°C are 1.459, 6.2866, 3.216, respectively. And the apparent activation energy of 2520 steel is 478.81 kJ/mol. The results of this study can provide some technical references for the safety management of 2520 steel.

Influence of laser power on molten pool flow field of a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

A Study of 16MnDR Steel Thick Plate Narrow Gap Laser-MIG Hybrid Welding Chinese Journal of Lasers , 43 ( 2016 ) , pp. 46 - 54 Article Download PDF CrossRef View Record in LASER CUTTING OF SMALL-DIAMETER HOLES IN carbon-steel sheet. The study focused on optimizing the laser power and gas pressure; the former ranged from 200800 W and the latter was varied from 820 bars. Such small-diameter holes could be used in filters in various fields, such as aerospace and the civil construction industry. LASEReady Plate Intended for Laser Cutting Applicationsfor plate steel to meet the exacting requirements for laser-beam cutting applications. Plate steel with this improved capability can be ordered as LASEReady. Available Grades LASEReady processing is available for most popular steel grades, such as ASTM A36, A516, A572, A573, A131, A709, A514/T-1®, Hardwear®, and LQ-130.

Laser Cut Quality Guide - Mate Precision Technologies

The following show 12, 6 and 3.2 mm (1/2, 1/4 and 10ga) mild steel cut with oxygen on a 2kw fiber laser and examples of the same part cut with 1 variable changed to show how it affected the cut quality. The examples of the adjustments made will be similar for any CO2 or fiber laser cutting mild steel with O2. Kerf too narrow Laser Cutting Thickness Guide on Laser Power, Lens and a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserWe have compiled this guide for the laser system that we sell, which gives you a good idea of all kinds of materials that a laser can mark, engrave, drill and cut from Laser Cutting Thickness Speed Chart MachineMfgIn other words, the maximum thickness that can be cut by the same power laser cutting machine is also different. For example, a 1000W laser cutting machine can cut 10mm thick carbon steel, but only 4mm stainless steel. Of course, when the laser power is fixed,

Laser Forming of Varying Thickness PlatePart II

The process design of laser forming on varying thickness plate differs from that of uniform thickness plate. Not only shape cur-vature, but also thickness variations, need to be accounted for in determining the scanning path. The strain or strain ratio not only is a function of power and scanning speed if the beam spot size is Laser O2 cutting guide for mild steel HyperthermBelow are examples of 12, 6, and 3.2mm (1/2, 1/4, and 10ga) mild steel cut with oxygen on a 2kw fiber laser and examples of the same part cut with 1 variable changed to show how it affected the cut quality. The examples of the adjustments made will be similar for any CO 2 or fiber laser cutting mild steel with O 2. Factory cut chart settings Laser Pointer Safety - Laser Classes (1, 1M, 2, 2M, 3R, 3B, 4)Laser Classes chart. Lasers are classified based on their potential for causing injury especially eye damage, since the eye is most susceptible to excess laser light. There are four main classes for visible-beam lasers Class 2, Class 3R, Class 3B and Class 4. The first two are relatively safe for eye exposure; the last two are hazardous.

Laser Thickness Gauge AGT800 - Advanced Gauging

The AGT800 laser thickness gauge is designed for measuring metals and virtually any other material, such as plastics, wood, gypsum, rubber and more, that are processed in coil, sheet, or strip form. It provides fast and reliable non-contact laser thickness measurements and S.P.C. reporting using the latest in laser displacement triangulation technology. Laser Thickness Gauges Thickness Measurement Sensors a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserNon-contact laser thickness gauge with digital thickness computation. The Microtrak 3 Thickness Gauge System used for automated metal, fiberboard and cement board sheet production and QA/QC combines our proven non-contact laser triangulation sensors with a modular controller that can operate either as a standalone solution for displacement measurement or with a PLC/PC. Laser narrow gap welding of thick carbon steels using high a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserLaser narrow gap welding with beam oscillation was developed to prevent lack of fusion and hot cracking in the welding of thick steel plates. The weld qualities of carbon steel joints with a thickness of 60 and 150mm were examined in this work.

Lasers - From QA Review Practice Questions Flashcards a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

E. 200+C. D. 100+C. When cutting hard tissue with a laser, A. Caries removal should be limited to a bur or hand instrument. B. Minimal thermal effects are observed in adjacent tissue. C. Longer pulse durations are used with high peak power. D. The laser tip should be held parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Lecture 5 - UIUCLaser light. In a laser, all the atoms emit light with the same frequency and phase. This is a quantum effect that well study later in the course. Laser Incoherent waves The phase relation is random. Waves from two unrelated sources. Examples light from two points on the sun or two atoms on a light bulb filament, or two people singing the a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser MORN LASER 12kW fiber laser cutting machine breaks Technological Breakthrough of Morn Laser 12Kw Fiber Laser Cutting Machine Changes to The Sheet Metal Processing Industry Lasergeneratorlocalization Speeds Up Cost-Effectiveness Metal Laser Cutting Enters The Era of High Power As fiber lasers gradually break through the power limitation, from 12KW to 20KW and 25KW, the highest power fiber lasers on the market now have been launched at 30KW. The stability of functional components has become an obstacle to the development of ultra-high power laser cutting equipment. Laser cutting head is the key to realize long-term stable cutting under high power continuous working state. Compared with ordinary cutting heads, it requires tighter sealing and more adequate cooling mea See more on morntech PROCESS ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF LASER PROCESS ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF LASER FORMING OF VARYING THICKNESS PLATE Peng Cheng 1, Yajun Fan 1, Jie Zhang1, David Mika2, Michael Graham 2, Wenwu Zhang 2, Jud Marte 2, Marshall Jones 2, Y. Lawrence Yao1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia Universi ty, New York, NY 2Global Research Center, General Electric Co., Niskayuna, NY KEYWORDS Laser

Materials Free Full-Text Steel Sheets Laser Lap Joint a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

2.1. Materials. Low-carbon constructional steel S235JR in the form of 2.5 mm thick steel sheets was used as a base material for both the simulation and trial joint welding. The commonly used low-carbon steel sheets were welded in lap joint configuration, using an advanced heat source in Micromachines August 2021 - Browse ArticlesIn this study, a micromachined chip in Otto configuration with multiple air-gaps (1.86 m, 2.42 m, 3.01 m, 3.43 m) was fabricated, and the reance characteristics for each air-gap was measured with a 980 nm laser source. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Narrow Gap a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserthick sections, but their combination has been seldom studied. In this research, 40 mm thick mild steel was welded by narrow gap laser-arc hybrid welding. A weld with smooth layer transition, free of visible defects, was obtained by nine passes at a 6 mm width narrow gap. The lower part of

Non-contact laser systems for the steel industry LAP

With our laser measurement systems, you are able to reduce your holding times and increase your efficiency. Our measuring systems have been known for optimizing manufacturing quality in the steel industry for more than 30 years. Benefit from our experience in the field and get the maximum process security during ongoing production. Steel Composition and the Laser Cut Edge Quality - TWIIntroduction Experimental Approach Results The first experiments on gas assisted laser cutting were performed by TWI in 1967, using a prototype slow flow 300W pulsed CO 2laser. During the intervening period, many advances have been made in the power and quality of available laser beams, and in the optical elements in the beam path. In addition, special 'laser grade' steels have been developed with compositions which are claimed to be beneficial for laser cutting, and the thickness of materials which are cut on a production basis has increased significa See more on twi-global Laser Cutting Thick Plates Debugging Methods And Skills a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserII. The Selection of Nozzle III. Frequency Adjustment IV. Duty Ratio Adjustment v. Focus Selection The size of the nozzle diameter determines the shape of the airflow into the incision, the gas diffusion area, and the gas flow rate, which affects melt removal and cutting stability. If the airflow into the incision is large, the speed is fast, and the position of the workpiece in the airflow is appropriate, thus the jetting ability to remove the molten material will be stronger. The thicker the stainless steel, the larger the nozzle should be used, the higher the air pressure setting, the pressure and flow rate should be satisfied at th See more on machinemfg Joint Design and Fit-up Guidelines for Laser WeldingFor reference, for a 400 µm spot size, misalignment of the laser beam to the joint should be less than 0.3 mm. Misalignment up to 0.5 mm is acceptable for a 600 µm spot size. Figure 1 The rule of thumb for joint fit-up for a butt joint is that the maximum gap should be less than 10% of the lowest sheet thickness. Steel Strip Thickness Measurement - Acuity LaserThe metals fabrication business is one of the oldest industries in the world. Large mills are automated, but some smaller mills still rely on hand-held micrometers to gauge metal thickness. AR200 laser measurement sensors are ideal for measuring steel strip thickness to fine resolutions. Steel passes between two opposing non-contact laser sensors.

The early days of laser cutting (August 2007) - TWI

11th Nordic Conference in Laser Processing of Materials, Lappeenranta, Finland, August 20-22, 2007. Abstract. The first experiment in laser materials processing which was subsequently to evolve into a significant industrial process was conducted in May 1967 when Peter Houldcroft used an oxygen assist gas to cut 1mm thick steel sheet with a focused CO 2 laser beam. Thick Plate, Tube and More Laser Cutting Advice from the ProsPrecision Hole-Making in Steel Managing Tube Irregularities Thick Plate Cutting Benefiting from A Swiss Mix New Generation of Quality Compared with conventional machining, laser manufacturing often presents a good news-bad news paradox, said Mark Barry, vice president of sales and marketing for Prima Power Laserdyne (Champlin, MN), a business unit of Prima Power North America(Arlington Heights, IL). The window for acceptable laser processing parameters is largetypically larger than for many conventional machining processes, he explainSee more on sme Line Width vs. Depth Ratio in Laser Engraving MoldMaking a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserA good rule of thumb is that the line width of the engraving should be equal to or greater than the depth of the engraving. You cannot engrave a 0.003-inch-wide character 0.010 inch deep and maintain a flat floor finish, but you can engrave a 0.003-inch-wide character 0.003 inch deep. However, increasing the line width of the engraving in the a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Thick plate cutting - Laser engineering - Eng-TipsLaser engineering Forum; Thick plate cutting. thread380-262254. Forum Search FAQs Links MVPs Menu. Thick plate cutting Thick plate cutting laserman14 (Civil/Environmental) (OP) 5 Jan 10 22:51. Hi just want to know what kinds of thick plate people are using out there. I run a mits. 3015lvplus and they told me to run .19 minium carbon a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

Thickness Measurement - Non-Contact Sensors - Acuity Laser

The metals fabrication business is one of the oldest industries in the world. Large mills are automated, but some smaller mills still rely on hand-held micrometers to gauge metal thickness. AR200 laser measurement sensors are ideal for measuring steel strip thickness to fine resolutions. Steel passes between two opposing non-contact laser sensors. Thin Sheet Metal Laser Cutting with Exceptional Accuracy a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserThe laser has a peak output power of 1.5 kW and can cut sheet metal with a thickness between 20 µm (0.02 mm) and 1,000 µm (1 mm) at speeds ranging from a few mm per second to a hundred mm per second. The SRC-610 is also suitable for Three-Dimensional Uniaxially Aligned Nanofibre window was used as substrate. The substrate was 25 m thick with 30 mm inner diameter. Two grounded metal plates were placed at 50 mm apart to create a gap similar to the concept of gap electrospinning used by Wu et al. . Figure 1. A schematic illustrating the introduction of secondary electrodes, substrate-holder system, and gap plates.

Turning up the power

A 4,000-watt laser can process up to 1.0-inch-thick carbon steel, and a 6,000-watt laser can process 1-5/8-inch-thick carbon steel. Oxygen always is used to process plate in this material thickness range. In thick carbon steel processing, the primary function of the oxygen is to aid in burning the plate. It also helps eject the molten material. WEC Laser our laser cutting capacity list1. 4m x 2m fibre laser cutter. 8Kw. 4m x 2m sheets in thickness of 40mm stainless steel / 30mm mild steel laser cutting and 20mm aluminium laser cutting. 3. 3m x 1.5m Fibre laser cutter. 5Kw. 3m x 1.5m sheets in thickness of 12mm stainless steel / 20mm mild steel laser cutting / 12mm aluminium laser cutting, 6mm copper and 6mm brass aser cutting. Which is better laser cutting thickness or speed?Which is better laser cutting thickness or speed?Of course, when the laser power is fixed, the thinner the plate, the faster the cutting speed. In this case, the laser cutting thickness and speed are inversely proportional. So, how much laser power wattage should you choose for your laser cutting machine? The following table can give you a reference.Laser Cutting Thickness Speed Chart MachineMfg

Why are laser grade steels used in laser cutting?Why are laser grade steels used in laser cutting?In addition, special 'laser grade' steels have been developed with compositions which are claimed to be beneficial for laser cutting, and the thickness of materials which are cut on a production basis has increased significantly. These 'laser grade' steels, are steels marketed as providing improved cutting speed, quality and reproducibility.Steel Composition and the Laser Cut Edge Quality - TWI Why is laser thickness gauge susceptible to Mechani-Cal deformation?Why is laser thickness gauge susceptible to Mechani-Cal deformation?The laser thickness gauge is susceptible to the effect of mechani- cal deformation due to temperature changes, and vibra- tion. In order to ensure the necessary performances, an on-line calibration method was proposed and applied, and a real operational plate thickness gauge was suc- cessfully developed.Development of Laser Thickness Gauge in Steel Plate a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserA study of 16MnDR steel thick plate narrow gap laser-MIG a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

Abstract. In order to realize the narrow-gap welding of 20 mm thick plate 16MnDR steel, experiments are designed to study the effect of root faces and groove angles on welding process stability a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

Cited by 11 Publish Year 2017 Author Yong Zhao, Yong Zhao, Shengchong Ma, Jian Huang, Yixiong Wu 5 mins What kind of laser is used to measure steel thickness?What kind of laser is used to measure steel thickness?Large mills are automated, but some smaller mills still rely on hand-held micrometers to gauge metal thickness. AR200 laser measurement sensors are ideal for measuring steel strip thickness to fine resolutions. Steel passes between two opposing non-contact laser sensors.Thickness Measurement - Non-Contact Sensors - Acuity LaserCited by 13 Publish Year 2015 Author Ruoyang Li, Jun Yue, Xinyu Shao, Chunming Wang, Fei Yan, Xiyuan Hu Narrow-gap laser welding using filler wire of thick steel a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

In this study, butt joints with narrow gap were welded using a high-power CO 2 laser. The effect of welding parameters including the relative position between the laser beam and the filler wire, welding speed, and the distance from the intersection of the beam and wire to root of the groove on the weld bead geometry and welding defects was studied.Cited by 54 Publish Year 2014 Author Ruoyang Li, Tianjiao Wang, Chunming Wang, Fei Yan, Xinyu Shao, Xiyuan Hu, Jianmin Li Images of a Study of 16mndr steel thick Plate narrow gap laser researchgate.net(PDF) Study on the weldability, microstructure and mechanical properties of thick Inconel 617 a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserresearchgate.netMolten pool width as a function of laser power and welding speed a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Download Scientific Diagramscientific.netTechnical Challenges in Narrow-Gap Root Pass Welding during Tandem and Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserresearchgate.netSchematic representation of narrow gap multi-pass laser welding process a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Download Scientific a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserresearchgate.netThe element segregation of weld metal (a) the microstructure; (b) line a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser Download Scientific a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser images A study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plates using a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserElmesalamy et al. successfully welded 316L stainless steel plates that were 20 mm in thickness using a 1-kW IPG single mode fiber laser with an ultra-narrow gap (1.5 mm gap width) and a taper a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

10 mins A study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plates using a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laser

The optimized process parameters to a weld 30 mm thick plate, shown in Table 11, were designed based on the experimental results from welding a 16 mm thick mild steel using a narrow gap with laser wire filled welding and from an 18 mm thick 8 mins A study of thick plate ultra-narrow-gap multi-pass multi a study of 16mndr steel thick plate narrow gap laserWang TJ (2012) Research on laser-arc hybrid welding with narrow gap. Appl Laser 12:7174. Google Scholar 25. Li RY, Wang TJ (2014) Study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plate with multi-layer and multi-pass method. Opt Laser Technol 64:172183. Article Google Scholar Download references

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